Trilateral Strategic Confidence Building Measures in Southern Asia
Video Analysis

Trilateral Strategic Confidence Building Measures in Southern Asia

Concerns have been growing over the conflict in Southern Asia since 2019 India-Pakistan Pulwama-Balakot crisis and the 20220-21 China-India border standoff. In this special video, by Asia-Pacific Leadership Network (APLN), former Brigadier in the Pakistan Army and author of the book ‘Eating Grass: The Making of the Pakistani Bomb’, Feroz Khan highlights escalatory risks in India-Pakistan and China-India relations and proposes a range of trilateral confidence building measures (CBMs) to prevent a nuclear catastrophe. The interview is based on his recent report for APLN titled “Trilateral Strategic Confidence Building Measures in Southern Asia.”

Feroz Khan argues that the confluence of China, India and Pakistan, in Southern Asia – where three nuclear powers are involved in major disputes, is a primary front of Asia’s strategic dynamics. India-Pakistan and China-India are two asymmetric dyads in the region, making India is a major component of the Asian power balance. Khan highlights the dissonance in the nuclear doctrines of the three powers, and suggests that it could be addressed through strategic dialogues and confidence building measures (CBMs). Despite the history of failed agreements and peace-making initiatives, he makes a case for a common agenda towards improved security through bilateral and trilateral CBMs. These include institutionalised conflict resolution processes, conventional force balance, nuclear and sub-conventional restraints, and military-to-military communications.

To read the full report written by Feroz Khan, visit


Video Editor: David Slepcevic

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